Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and jaw area can be caused by several conditions. If lymph nodes persistently remain enlarged after several weeks doctors usually consider a work-up to help determine the cause. Work up can include physical exam, lab tests, x-rays, and sometimes biopsy of an abnormal lymph node.
Some infections that commonly cause enlarged lymph nodes are strep throat, mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, and HIV infection. There are many more possible infectious causes.
Some cancers cause enlarged lymph nodes such as head and neck cancers and lymphoma.
There are several other medical conditions such as lupus, amyloidosis, and sarcoidosis that can cause lymph node enlargement.
Certain medications can lead lymph node enlargement as a side effect.
It is best for your brother to follow up with his doctor who can
evaluate the need to do further work-up if lymph node enlargement
Here is a link to an article about enlarged lymph nodes http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/swollen-lymph-nodes-topic-overview
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