Labral tears (sometimes called SLAP tears) may occur during any
gymnastic exercise, but ring and bar specialists seem particularly
vulnerable. It is characterized by pain that initially resolves but
tends to recur with return to sport. An MRI can be helpful in
establishing a definitive diagnosis.
In gymnastics, the wrist is subjected to forces that can exceed twice
the body weight. The first step in treating wrist pain is to reduce the
training volume of the athlete, relieve symptoms, and to participate in
only pain-free activities. After an injury, gymnasts should avoid
extensive pressure on the wrist joint for six weeks. If the gymnast is
experiencing pain with non-gymnastic activities of daily living, using a
brace or cast to immobilize the wrist temporarily may be helpful.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury
ACL injuries can result when a gymnast lands "short" or is over-rotated while tumbling, dismounting, or vaulting.
A "pop" may be heard or felt followed by knee swelling with hours.
MRI is often used to confirm ACL injury. As with other sports, ACL
reconstruction is recommended for gymnasts who wish to return to full
Achilles Tendon Injury
Gymnasts can suffer from a variety of injuries to the Achilles tendon
located just above the back of the heel, as a result of the repetitive
stress of jumping and landing.
Achilles tendinitis results in calf soreness that is
aggravated with jumping and landing. Treatment should initially consist
of ultrasound, stretching, activity modification, and calf exercises.
Foot immobilization for seven to ten days may be beneficial for severe
Foot and Ankle Injures
Injuries to the foot and ankle are common in gymnastics. Acute
injuries are usually sprains which can be minor or more serious.
Swelling, bruising and tenderness directly over the bones are signs of a
more serious injury. Minor injuries typically have tenderness limited
to one side of the joint without significant swelling. Serious injuries
require evaluation by a qualified professional while return to
participation after a minor injury is often possible within a week if
there is no pain (or limping) with weight bearing activity. Protection
with taping or a brace can aid recovery and reduce the risk for
reinjury. Chronic ankle pain or repeated injuries are worrisome and
require evaluation before continuing with participation.
Lower Back Injuries
The cause of low-back pain can include muscle strain, ligament
sprain, fracture, and/or disc disorders. Frequently, low-back pain will
worsen with activity, especially with extension movements, such as
arching the shoulders backwards.
Low-back pain in gymnasts related to muscular strain or ligament
sprain usually responds to rest and physical therapy exercises.
Persistent back pain is uncommon and should not be ignored. An MRI or a
bone scan are often helpful to rule out more significant injuries.