If you think you may have a concussion or suspect that someone else has one, the most important step to take is to prevent further injury. Stop whatever activity you are involved in and tell someone you think you may have been injured. Then get medical attention. If you're playing as part of a team, ask to be taken out of the game and tell the coach what happened. If you are coaching a team and you notice a potential injury, take the person out of the game, and see that the person gets medical care.
Receiving medical attention as soon as possible is important for any type of potentially moderate to severe TBI. Undiagnosed injuries that don't receive proper care can cause long-term disability and impairment. Keep in mind that although death from a sports injury is rare, brain injuries are the leading cause of sports-related deaths.
Symptoms should be closely monitored. Often with a moderate to severe injury, that may require an overnight stay in the hospital. X-rays may be used to check for potential skull fracture and stability of the spine. In some cases, the doctor may ask for a CT scan or an MRI to check on the extent of the damage that occurred. More severe injuries may require surgery to relieve pressure from swelling.
If the doctor sends you home with an injured person, the doctor will instruct you to watch that person closely. That may involve waking the person every few hours to ask questions such as "What's your name?" or "Where are you?" to be sure the person is OK. Be sure you've asked the doctor and understand what symptoms to watch for and which ones require immediate attention.
Guidelines urge doctors to be conservative in treating sports-related brain injuries and to not allow someone who has been injured to return to activity that involves risk of further injury until completely free of symptoms. That usually takes a few weeks. But symptoms of severe injury could persist for months or even years. A person with a moderate to severe injury will likely require rehabilitation that may include physical and occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, medication, psychological counseling, and social support.
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