Studies have shown that soda drinkers are more at risk for breaking or fracturing their bones and for developing osteoporosis. More research, however, is needed to better understand what specifically is influencing this relationship. There are three main ideas for why this occurs: the caffeine in soda, the amount of phosphoric acid in soda, or simply because soda is taking the place of healthier alternatives.
Calcium impacts bone mass and prevents bone loss, but caffeine has been shown to interfere with calcium absorption, though its affects may be minimal. Phosphoric acid, often found in soda, works with calcium in controlling bone health, but excess consumption has been linked to lower bone density in studies.
Soda may affect bone health simply because soda drinkers are likely to not be consuming as much of other nutritious alternatives. So, negative bone health may result from soda itself or it may be because of a lack of other healthier beverages like milk. More research needs to be done in order to better understand the relationship between soda and bone health.
This article provides some good information on the subject: http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/features/soda-osteoporosis.
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