Men with no family history of colorectal cancer or polyps are considered at average risk for colorectal cancer. Men with average risk should begin prevention examinations at age 50. The recommended screening guidelines to detect early stage lesions and polyps for men at average risk include the following:
- Fecal occult blood test: This test examines the stool for blood not easily noticed by the naked eye. For men at average risk of colorectal cancer, this test should be given every year starting at age 50.
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy: Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a routine outpatient procedure in which a physician uses a sigmoidoscope (a long, flexible instrument about 1/2 inch in diameter) to view the lining of the rectum and the lower third of the colon (called the sigmoid and descending colon). This test is usually done every five years and can be used in combination with the yearly fecal occult blood test.
- Air contrast barium enema: This test is an X-ray examination of the entire colon and rectum in which barium and air are introduced gradually into the colon by a rectal tube to improve visualization. Doctors typically recommend this test (sometimes in combination with flexible sigmoidoscopy) every 5-10 years, starting at age 50.
- Colonoscopy: This is an outpatient procedure in which the rectum and the inside of the entire colon are examined. During a colonoscopy, a doctor uses a long, flexible instrument about 1/2 inch in diameter to view the lining of the colon. This test is recommended every 10 years, starting at age 50.
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