In Finland, a 25- to 30-year study of over 6,000 persons found an increased risk of fatal vascular disease in those who had the lowest blood levels of 25(OH)D. Interestingly, this relationship was apparent for the incidence of strokes but not heart attacks. Proposed mechanisms for improved blood vessel health include vitamin D's beneficial impact on high blood pressure via kidney hormones, decreased inflammation inside the arteries, and improved insulin resistance via changes in parathyroid hormone (Lee, 2008).
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