Behavioral changes are the easiest to identify, but some of the hardest to accomplish. For example, if a person gains 10 pounds, his or her snoring may become a problem. It is easy to tell a person to lose the 10 pounds, but it is difficult to accomplish. Behavioral changes include weight loss, changing sleeping positions, avoiding alcohol, smoking cessation, and changing medications that may be the cause of snoring.
Losing weight may improve snoring. Snoring usually is worse when lying flat on the back. To help this problem, a pocket can be sewn into the back of the snorer's pajama tops. A tennis or golf ball in the pocket will "encourage" the snorer to roll over to sleep on his/her side. Alcohol or sedative medications make snoring worse and, therefore, should be avoided.
Snoring is exacerbated by normal airflow through a narrowed area in the throat. Part of the narrowing is caused by the tongue and palate falling back during sleep. Some dental devices have been developed that hold the jaw forward. Since the tongue is attached in the front to the jaw, the tongue also is held forward when these devices are used. Some devices are designed to hold the palate up and forward.
All dental devices (similar to a mouthpiece) are best made by a dentist to ensure a correct fit without causing problems. These devices may improve snoring in 70% to 90% of cases. There are some drawbacks to dental devices, however. They must be worn every night in order to work, can cause or exacerbate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems, can cause excessive salivation, and can be moderately expensive.
Nasal devices and medications
For people with narrow nasal passages, snoring can be alleviated with nasal devices or medications. Breathe right strips open the anterior nasal valve (front part of the nose). If this is the main or only area of narrowing, snoring may improve with use of these strips, but this is frequently not the case.
If nasal mucosal (lining) swelling from allergies or irritation is causing the problem, nasal sprays may help. Nasal saline irrigation spray is a way to clean and moisturize the nasal lining since environmental irritants that stay in the nose (dust, pollen, and smoke) continue to irritate as long as they are present. The nasal lining also swells when it is cold and dry. Nasal saline helps to wash away irritants and moisturizes the mucosa without side effects.
Other nasal sprays that may be used to improve nasal breathing include nasal steroid sprays and nasal decongestants. They are very helpful for swelling due to minor allergies or irritation. Steroid sprays decrease inflammation in the nasal passages. Very little of the steroid is absorbed into the body from the nose so there are few side effects with these sprays. Nasal decongestants that shrink the blood vessels in the turbinates also can be used to improve snoring that results from nasal congestion.
CPAP, or continuous positive airway pressure, is a device that is commonly used in patients with a clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. This device works by providing constant, increased air pressure to prevent airway narrowing during inspiration and expiration. It entails wearing a mask that is connected by tubing to a pump that keeps the pressure of the inspired air at a higher than normal level.
This device has proven to cause subjective and objective improvement of snoring and other symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. The air pressures are adjusted individually for each patient based on their parameters of a sleep study.
The main problem with CPAP is that the CPAP machine is bulky, noisy, and possibly uncomfortable for patients to wear all night, every night. Therefore, patient adherence to the use of CPAP often is not optimal.
Over-the-counter products for snoring
There are many other simple over the counter products available to help with snoring. Generally, they may not be scientifically studied and recommended. They may be useful in some people subjectively. Regardless, if snoring exists, then it needs to be fully evaluated by a physician to assure that there is no underlying potential medical condition and to choose a proven method of treatment.
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