Different forms of psychotherapy have been found to effectively treat BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an approach to psychotherapy in which the therapist specifically addresses four areas that tend to be particularly problematic for individuals with BPD: self-image, impulsive behaviors, mood instability, and problems in relating to others. To address those areas, treatment with DBT tries to build four major behavioral skill areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. Talk therapy that focuses on helping the person understand how their thoughts and behaviors affect each other (cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT) has also been found to be effective treatment for BPD. Other psychotherapy approaches that have been used to address BPD include interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and psychoanalytic therapy. IPT is an approach that focuses on how the person's symptoms are related to the problems that person has in relating to others. Psychoanalytic therapy, which seeks to help the individual understand and better manage his or her ways of defending against negative emotions, has been found to be effective in addressing BPD, especially when the therapist is more active or vocal than in traditional psychoanalytic treatment and when this approach is used in the context of current rather than past relationships.
The use of psychiatric treatment medications, like antidepressants (for example, fluoxetine [Prozac], sertraline [Zoloft], citalopram [Celexa], escitalopram [Lexapro], venlafaxine [Effexor], duloxetine [Cymbalta], or trazodone [Desyrel]), mood stabilizers (for example, divalproex sodium [Depakote], carbamazepine [Tegretol], or lamotrigine [Lamictal]), or antipsychotics (for example, olanzapine [Zyprexa], risperidone [Risperdal], aripiprazole [Abilify], paliperidone [Invega] or asenapine [Saphris]) may be useful in addressing some of the symptoms of BPD but do not manage the illness in its entirety. On the positive side, some women who suffer from both BPD and bipolar disorder may experience a decrease in how irritable and angry they feel, as well as a decrease in how often and severely they become aggressive when treated with a mood stabilizer like Depakote. On the other hand, the use of medications in the treatment of symptoms in individuals with BPD may sometimes cause more harm than good. For example, while people with BPD may experience suicidal behaviors no more often than other individuals with a severe mental illness, they often receive more medications and therefore suffer from more side effects. Also, given how frequently many sufferers of BPD experience suicidal feelings, great care is taken to avoid the medications that can be dangerous in overdose.
Partial hospitalization is an intervention that involves the individual with mental illness being in a hospital-like treatment center during the day but returning home each evening. In addition to providing a safe environment and frequent monitoring by mental-health professionals, partial hospitalization programs allow for more frequent mental-health interventions like professional assessments, psychotherapy medication treatment, as well as development of a treatment plan for after discharge from the facility. While funding for a long-term stay in a partial hospitalization facility may be difficult, research shows that when it is provided using a psychoanalytic approach it may help the person with BPD enjoy a decrease in the severity of anxiety and depression, the frequency of suicide attempts and full hospitalizations, as well as developing improved relationships with others. Contrary to earlier beliefs, BPD has been found to significantly improve in response to treatment with appropriate inpatient hospitalization. Loved ones of individuals with BPD might benefit from participation in a support group.
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