Estrogen is a female hormone that is produced by the ovaries. During the reproductive years, a woman's body is exposed to high levels of estrogen. After menopause, the production of estrogen by the ovaries decreases. Estrogen is sometimes prescribed to treat some of the problems often associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and vaginal dryness. Estrogen has the additional benefit of prevention of bone thinning (osteoporosis). However, results from a large clinical trial of postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT) released in 2002 showed that the overall risks of estrogen plus progestin therapy outweighed the benefits of hormone therapy. Combined hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin was shown to increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and blood clots.
High levels of estrogen over long periods also increase the risk of developing breast and uterine cancers. Estrogen stimulates the cells of the breast and the uterine lining to grow and divide. Breast cells that are actively dividing are believed to have a greater chance of DNA damage as well as a higher number of cells that already have DNA damage. A higher number of cells with DNA damage elevate the risk of cancer development.
Women who have an early onset of their menstrual period (or menses) and late menopause are more likely to develop breast cancer than women with late menses onset and early menopause. This difference is believed to be attributable to the longer period of estrogen exposure in the first group.
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Read the Original Article: Breast Cancer Prevention