Any condition that results in movement or growth of the bony vertebrae of the spine can limit the space (encroachment) for the adjacent spinal cord and nerves.
Causes of bony encroachment of the spinal nerves include foramen narrowing (narrowing of the portal through which the spinal nerve passes from the spinal column, out of the spinal canal to the body), spondylolisthesis (slipping of one vertebra relative to another), and spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal caused by compression of the nerve roots or spinal cord by bony spurs or other soft tissues in the spinal canal). For example, lumbar spinal nerve compression in these conditions can lead to sciatica pain that radiates down the lower extremities.
Spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal) can occur at any level of the spine, but it's most common in the lumbar spine of the low back. Symptoms depend on the level affected. For example, lumbar spinal stenosis can cause lower-extremity pains which worsen with walking and are relieved by resting (mimicking poor circulation of the lower extremities).
Treatment of these conditions varies (depending on the severity and condition of the patient) from rest to surgical decompression by removing the bone that is compressing the nervous tissue.
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