||Non-drug management and comments|
|Difficulty walking (slowness)
||dalfamipridine (Ampyra) was FDA- approved in 2010 to improve walking in patients with MS. Physical therapy, orthotic equipment, and walking aids also my be of benefit.|
|Physical therapy also may provide benefit. Most drugs are given by mouth. Some drugs are given via spinal pumps.|
||Physical therapy and exercise are used primarily. Foot braces, canes or walkers are of benefit.|
|Eye problems (acute optic neuritis)
||Solu-Medrol is given during the acute attack intravenously, sometimes followed by a corticosteroid by mouth.|
|Fatigue, emotional outbursts
amantadine (Symmetrel) for fatigue;
modafinil (Provigil) for fatigue
Decrease or avoid physical activity and heat exposure. Amitriptyline is used for sudden laughing/weeping.
|Aspirin, NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or physical therapy are used for muscle and back pain. Anti-convulsants, like carbamazepine (Tegretol) or gabapentin (Neurontin) are used for face or limb pain. Anti-depressants or electrical stimulation are used for prickling pain, intense tingling, and burning. Referral to pain specialist is recommended with severe pain.|
Antibiotics are used to manage infections.
Vitamin C and cranberry juice are used to prevent infections.
Catheters are used to relieve retention of urine.
Oxybutynin (Ditropan, Ditropan LX, Oxytrol) or tolterodine (Detrol, Detrol LA) is used for bladder dysfunction.
||Increase fluids and fiber.|
||sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra), papaverine, Vaginal gels
For males, erectile dysfunction drugs, papaverine, penile implant, or electrostimulation are used.
For females, vaginal gels or a vibrating device are used.
||Often resistant to treatment. Sometimes drugs or surgery are used if tremors are severe.|