The choice of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms and any underlying disease that might be causing the symptoms.
Initial treatment usually includes rest, immobilization of the wrist in a splint, and occasionally ice application. Those whose occupations are aggravating the symptoms should modify their activities. For example, computer keyboards and chair height may need to be adjusted to optimize comfort. These measures, as well as periodic resting and range of motion stretching exercise of the wrists can actually prevent the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome that are caused by repetitive overuse. Underlying conditions or diseases are treated individually. Fractures can require orthopedic management. Obese individuals will be advised regarding weight reduction. Rheumatoid disease is treated with measures directed against the underlying arthritis. Wrist swelling that can be associated with pregnancy resolves in time after delivery of the baby.
Several types of medications have been used in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has been reported to relieve some symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, although it is not known how this medication works. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be helpful in decreasing inflammation and reducing pain. Side effects include gastrointestinal upset and even ulceration of the stomach. These medications should be taken with food, and abdominal symptoms should be reported to the doctor. Corticosteroids can be given by mouth or injected directly into the involved wrist joint. They can bring rapid relief of the persistent symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Side effects of these medications, when given in short courses, for carpal tunnel syndrome are minimal. However, corticosteroids can aggravate diabetes and should be avoided in the presence of infections.
Most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome improve with conservative measures and medications. Occasionally, chronic pressure on the median nerve can result in persistent numbness and weakness. In order to avoid serious and permanent nerve and muscle consequences of carpal tunnel syndrome, surgical treatment is considered. Surgery involves severing the band of tissue around the wrist to reduce pressure on the median nerve. This surgical procedure is called "carpal tunnel release." It can now be performed with a small diameter viewing tube, called an arthroscope, or by open wrist procedure. After carpal tunnel release, patients often undergo exercise rehabilitation. Though it is uncommon, symptoms can recur.
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